Youth of color have experienced poor outcomes relative to their white counterparts historically, and these disparities persist today. Researchers have offered a number of explanations for these disparities, some of the more popular of which have focused on individual deficiencies. If one elucidates the underlying theories of change of dominant practices and public policies in the youth field, it appears that, despite variation in approach and emphasis, they too have focused on individual behavior. While behavior is clearly an important contributor to the outcomes that individuals experience, it is not the sole determinant. Rather, we contend that there are larger, structural factors that contribute to the racial disparities between youth of color and their white counterparts that deserve systematic and sustained attention.